- Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life.
- It is a neurobiological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain.
- Children and adults with autism face difficulty in processing information received from the various sensory organs.
- Autistic individuals may exhibit much bizarre behavior like spinning, flapping of hands, self-talking, constant jumping to name a few.
- Autism affects the areas of speech, language and communication; social interaction; leisure and play.
- The positive sides of the affected are their strengths in numbers, photographic memory, arts, music and orientation to perfection.
- Autism is the most common of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders, affecting an estimated 2 – 6 per 1,000 individuals.
- In India there are more than 4 million (40 lakh) individuals with autism.
- Autism is four times more prevalent in boys than girls, and knows no racial, ethnic or social boundaries.
- As of now, there is no cure found for Autism, but with sincere effort, love and care these children can find a place in our society.
When a person has M.R. there is a more or less even impairment in skills in all areas of development. Therefore, if an M.R. child of 8 years has a mental age of 5 then all his skills would be roughly around 5 years (i.e. motor, communication, social, self-help, cognition etc.).
In Autism, there is an uneven skill development- in fact this is the hallmark of autism. In some areas the child may show age-appropriate skills; in some the skills may be below the developmental level; and then again there are people with Autism who possess exceptional skills i.e. beyond their age level.
At this point in time we do not know what causes it. However, current research indicates that anything that can produce structural or functional damage to the central nervous system can also produce the condition of Autism.
We know that certain viruses and known genetic conditions are associated with Autism.
In addition, there are families that have more than one child with autism. At present, it is believed that about 10% of all cases can be accounted for genetically. It is difficult to tell parents why their child has autism.
Autism is a spectrum disorder. Currently there is no reliable objective measure of how severe the Autism is in an individual child.
Children with Autism have potential for building up their skills and they can be helped if they receive early, well-focused intervention.
Depending on the child’s individual skill profile and the appropriateness and intensity of intervention he or she receives, children with Autism can lead relatively independent lives.
At this point we do not know what causes Autism and so cannot fix (cure) what is wrong in the child’s brain.
Many therapies (medications, diets, etc.) are being tried but nothing is proven.
The only thing that is found to help in all cases is an appropriate training program that is very specific to the child’s need.
It is a life long condition but with appropriate intervention (training methods) the child can progress to his fullest potential.
A large member of autistic children (about 30-50%) do not use speech. It is very difficult to say when and whether the child will ever speak.
It is confirmed that there is no difficulty in their physical abilities that stops them from speaking. Some children who might have spoken as infants and then lost their speech may or may not get their speech back.
Currently, it is unknown why some children develop speech and others do not. Experience with children with autism has shown that if the environment is accepting, and people are aware of the kind of speech they themselves need to use with the child, it can produce positive results.
Hyperactivity can have a medical reason. However, most children with Autism are restless because of an impairment of their imaginative and social skills.
They cannot play with their toys and other children meaningfully and find it very difficult to keep themselves occupied.
Hyperactivity can be reduced as the children are taught new skills and ways to keep themselves occupied.
Children with Autism respond to sensations abnormally. They often have a condition known as sensory dysfunction this means either over or under stimulation in any one or more of the sensory modalities (hearing, sight, taste, touch, smell, balance).
One theory is that these unusual mannerisms like flapping and rocking etc. are natural responses or methods of coping with sensory difficulties. These behaviours may help them to relax.
It is very difficult for people with autism to take an IQ test because they may have certain skills but are not able to use them or exhibit them in a test.
About 50% of people with autism are also mentally retarded, just the way that people with Cerebral palsy or Down syndrome can have mental retardation.
Autism can occur in association with other difficulties like Cerebral Palsy, Dyslexia, Downs Syndrome, Visual Impairment, and Seizure Disorder.
1. Myth – Poor parenting causes autism.
Fact – The old belief that poor parenting (“refrigerator mom “) causes autism has been proved totally wrong. Parenting skills have nothing to do with autism.
2. Myth – Autism is a mental illness.
Fact – Autism is a neurologically based disorder of development. It is not considered a mental illness.
3. Myth – Children with autism can perform amazing mental feats, such as memorizing the whole telephone directory or multiplying large numbers in mind.
Fact – Autistic children who have such unique skills are called ‘savants’. Less than 5% of the autistic children have such abilities. Even for them those skills are useless as they may not have the social skills needed to use them appropriately.
4. Myth – Children with autism will never learn to speak.
Fact – About 50% of children with autism do not speak. With early detection and training it is possible to increase this number. It is also possible to teach them alternative means of communication.
5. Myth – Children with autism are all alike in their symptoms.
Fact – Autism is a spectrum of disorder ranging in severity. The challenges posed by each autistic kid is very different from the other. That makes it very difficult to train them.
6. Myth – Children with autism are disobedient kids who intentionally ignore people and instructions.
Fact – They look like disobedient because of their poor communication and social skills. They also generally have very poor motivation.
7. Myth – Children with autism are aggressive and dangerous.
Fact – Normally they are not aggressive. They have problems processing sensory inputs appropriately. Their hypo or hyper sensitivity to the environnment (noise, unfamiliar situation etc.) disturbs them and their inability to respond to them appropriately results sometimes in such behaviors.
8. Myth – Children with autism are mentally retarded.
Fact – Only a portion of kids with autism have mental retardation.
9. Myth – Autism affects only boys.
Fact – While the majority of the affected are boys, it can affect the girls as well. The ration is 4:1.
10. Myth – The multi-folds raise reported cases of autism is due to better understanding and diagnostics.
Fact – Better understanding and diagnostics is responsible for only a part of the raise. There still is a large portion of the raise that cannot be accounted for by better diagnostics.
11. Myth – Doctors are the best resources on autism.
Fact – Only a very small percentage of the medical community know autism well. Many doctors know very little about autism and won’t be able to diagnose one.
- Action for Autism – One of the earliest Autism organization of India; Based in New Delhi. Special school for children; Parent training.
- ASHA – Bangalore based; runs a special school for children.
- IRIS – Hyderabad based; runs a special school for children.
- Shristi – Bangalore based; runs a special school for children
- Karnataka Parents Association for Mentally Retarded Citizens (KPAMRC) is based in Bangalore. Offers diploma course in Special Education (Autism)
- NIMHANS – for diagnosis of autism, counselling after diagnosis.
- Autism.org One of the earliest autism information website.
- Autism Society of America
- The National Autistic Society (U.K.)
- World Autism Organization
- Autism Europe
- Applied Behavioral Analysis
- TEACCH Another approach to teaching autistic children.
- Son-Rise program – Teaching methodology based on following child’s lead.
- Stanely Greenspan’s DIR/floor-time approach to teach autistic children.
- Sensory Integration International – based on Ayre’s Sensory Integration Therapy.
- Tomatis Auditory Integration Therapy
- Berard Auditory Integration Therapy
- Autism Research Institute
- Center for the Study of Autism
- Cure Autism Now
- Other treatments for autism
- Defeat Autism Now (DAN)
- New Jersey Center for Outreach and Services for the Autism Community (COSAC)
- Gluten and Casein free diet
- Families for Early Autism Treatment (FEAT)